Vaccine hesitancy in India: A Comprehensive Review


  • Dr. Mrudangsinh Rathod Parul Institute of Pharmacy
  • Manthan Prajapati Parul Institute of Pharmacy
  • Madhav Oza Parul Institute of Pharmacy
  • Mansi Bhagat Parul Institute of Pharmacy


Vaccination coverage, vaccination, religious beliefs, socio-economic scenarios, Vaccination Attitude, Survey Data, Vaccine Hesitancy, Vaccine-hesitant in Parents


Background: Vaccination has been instrumental in promoting global health and development, saving millions of lives annually by enhancing the immune system's ability to fight diseases. Vaccines play a crucial role in preventing and managing outbreaks of infectious diseases. However, despite significant progress, access to adequate immunization remains a challenge for many people worldwide, including nearly 20 million newborns each year. In some countries, progress has slowed or even reversed, and complacency threatens to undermine past successes.

Method: This review utilizes data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted at three different intervals between 2005 and 2021. The survey considered children aged 12 to 23 months who received specified vaccines at any stage before the survey as having obtained all of the essential immunizations.

Findings: Global data indicate that India's immunization coverage has been increasing over time, as demonstrated by the results of surveys conducted in the country. Gender bias has declined, and birth order vaccination rates have improved. Immunization is influenced by factors such as parental education, financial circumstances, access to healthcare, safety concerns, and missing vaccinations. Despite the challenges, tremendous progress has been made and will continue to be made.

Conclusion: While challenges such as access to healthcare facilities and vaccine availability for indigenous communities, as well as people's safety education, remain significant issues, progress has been achieved since the last survey. The government must remain vigilant against anti-vaccine propaganda and work towards eliminating it.


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How to Cite

Rathod, D. M., Prajapati, M., Oza, M., & Bhagat, M. (2023). Vaccine hesitancy in India: A Comprehensive Review. Parul University Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 2(1), 27–40. Retrieved from



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